Cystitis

  1. General information
    1. Inflammation of the bladder due to bacterial invasion
    2. More common in women
    3. Predisposing factors include stagnation of urine, obstruction, sexual intercourse, high estrogen levels
  2. Assessment
    1. Abdominal or flank pain/tenderness, frequency and urgency of urination, pain on voiding, nocturia
    2. Fever
    3. Diagnostic tests: urine culture and sensitivity reveals specific organism (80% E. coli)
  3. Nursing interventions
    1. Force fluids (3000 ml/day).
    2. Provide warm sitz baths for comfort.
    3. Assess urine for odor, hematuria, sediment.
    4. Administer medications as ordered and monitor effects.
      1. Systemic antibiotics: ampicillin, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides
      2. Sulfonamides: sulfisoxazole (Gantrisin), sulfamethoxazole (Gantanol), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim)
      3. Antibacterials: nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin), methenamine mandelate (Mandelamine), nalidixic acid (NegGram)
      4. Urinary tract analgesic: pyridium
    5. Provide client teaching and discharge planning concerning
      1. Importance of adequate hydration
      2. Frequent voiding to avoid stagnation
      3. Proper personal hygiene; women to cleanse from front to back
      4. Voiding after sexual intercourse
      5. Acidification of the urine to decrease bacterial multiplication (acid-ash diet, vitamin C)
      6. Need for follow-up urine cultures.

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